As a part of health promotion and prevention, ergonomics is already a fixed integrated area of everyday work in the working world of adults. The central research question is: “What are the possibilities for the design of behavioral and environmental ergonomics in childhood, in the context of health promotion in primary school?”. The aim of this work is to highlight the possibilities for the design of behavioral and environmental ergonomics in primary schools that exist, to act as prevention in the field of health promotion. This is done using a qualitative content analysis. The key terms of which literature is selected are: “health promotion”, “health and elementary school”, “ergonomics”, “behavioral ergonomics and environmental ergonomics”, “furnishing in elementary school”. It has been found, that the behavioral and environmental ergonomics has to be always combined in a balanced way to be sustainable healthy. As actions of ergonomics in elementary school, many parallels to the working world of adults can be drawn. There are both, the design of the working environment, including ergonomic furniture and ergonomic aids, as well as the extension of competence in the behavioral ergonomics, such as back exercises for children, the “active rest”, relaxation and balance exercises, to ensure ergonomic behavior in children's lives.