Childhood depression severely increased during the last view years. This bachelor thesis is titled “understanding depressive children” and deals with depression of children from six to eleven years. First, the term “depression”, its symptoms and appearances are described. There, also diagnostic problems are introduced. Psychiatric diseases in childhood always need to be seen in connection to development stages. This is why the developmental tasks of primary school kids are also described. In a social work context, it is very important to have knowledge about the causes, risk factors and effects of depression to recognize depressive behavior and their origin. Depression develops within the family and may lead to a stay in the hospital. Social work’s possibilities for action associated with depressive children are described in relation to clinical social work. These comprise the psychosocial diagnosis, systemic family counseling, working together with parents, and so on.