The present thesis is devoted to the representation of “social therapy in prison”. For this matter, in the first two chapters, the two terms are getting interrelated. This is done by describing theoretical and historical references of the terms “penal system” and “prison” and by defining the term of “social therapy” under a common point of view, as well as in the context of the penal system. The focus is on the particular mode of operation, the special type of target group and the many facets of treatment. Afterwards the position of social work, as one of many occupational groups who are working in social therpapy, is explained in detail. A focal point of this work is the therapeutic relationship building described, by focusing on the challenges and processes in practice. In the third chapter, the previous contents are partly reviewed due to their applicability and social therapeutical institutions are described in theory and practice. To highlight the versatility in the implementation of this concept, two examples are listed: Mittersteig in Vienna and Altengamme in Hamburg.