This literature review also provides, next to the informations of intensive care of newborn after a heart transplant, a brief but important overview of the legal distribution of the task areas in nursing. Thereby the reader is allowed a glimps into intensive, postoperative care including postoperative acquisition, the special personal hygiene measures and preventive measures. The main part of this work includes informations german as well as english literature, articles and quoteable internet sources. For a better understanding the topic of the fetal circulation and postnatal adoption were described in the first chapter. Chapter two explains the indications for transplantation, and thus provides important preliminary information for the actual main theme of the intensive medical care of patients after a heart transplantation.