Elder abuse and aggression are still widely regarded as taboo topics within our society, even though these are actual matters that concern daily professional life. Due to various scientific approaches and perspectives, the terms are not precisely defined. A comparison of the two phenomena provides a clear overview and an in-depth understanding of these topics. With regards to the categorization of forms, both phenomena outline significant differences. A strong distinction is made between physical, verbal, psychological/emotional, sexual and financial forms, which hardly differ between various European countries. The practice of elder abuse and aggression can result in significant consequences regarding the physical and mental health of affected individuals. Therefore, it requires an increasingly intense social debate in relation to the occurrence and identification of the phenomena, in order to enable targeted prevention.