In the present study I will follow up the pedagogical conception of education in collectives by the theory of soviet pedagogue Anton S. Makarenko. The main concern of this study is, to make a theory of collective education to the object of discourse. I will discuss it in this study as possible opposite to the present pedagogical view “from the part of the individual child”. In the first part, I am going to describe life and work of Makarenko, mainly focussing on his views of socialist education, as well as on the presentation and analysis of various elements of the pedagogical system of collective education. The second and last part of this study includes a comparison of collective pedagogical theory, with the individual one, in terms of showing the theoretical confrontations between the theories of Makarenko and those of representatives of pedology/paediatrics and the “theory of liberal education”. With this study I try to link between the pedagogical controversies, which took place in the 20ths of last century, to the controversies and problems of today’s pedagogy. My aim with this work is, to show the surprising relevance, which these considerations and controversies, for today’s theoretical discourse of pedagogical problems, still have.