Although women make up half of the total population of Austria, the ratio of convicted females and their share of the general prison population make up just 15% and 6%, respectively. This thesis questions which theoretical explanations are provided on the part of science as to this low crime rate, and illuminates the impact these low crime rates have on the rehabilitation of delinquent women. This thesis with the title “Delinquent women – characteristics and consequences for the rehabilitation process” aims to put “women's crime” into the centre of attention, an issue that is often marginalised as a peripheral phenomenon, and to evaluate the main theoretical aspects related to the underlying causes and rehabilitation. Initially, the situation of women in the total population of Austria is depicted, followed by an analysis of the statistical data on women's crime. Subsequently, the focus will be on scientific explanation attempts. Then, the aspect of rehabilitation of female offenders is evaluated, whereby the social work perspective is paramount. It concludes with a critical appraisal of the findings and an outlook for further research topics.