This thesis discusses the topic of velamentous cord insertion and vasa previa. To achieve an optimal management by the midwife and other medical personal throughout the pregnancy, the birth and childbed, a deep knowledge of possible consequences and complications are necessary. Thus, in the framework of a literature review, the answer "Which fetal/neonatal and maternal complications can occur during the pregnancy and birth through a velamentous cord insertion and vasa previa?" is discussed. Furthermore, methods of diagnostics, potential risk factors and recommendations for the management are developed. The literature review showed that pathologies oft he umbilical cord insertion could have a negative impact on the mother, the fetus, as well as the newborn. Impacts on the child’s mothers are especially psychosocial, bleedings and complications in the period of afterbirth (PPH, manual removal of the placenta, curettage). After a thorough literature review, complications with the unborn and newborn show to be more extensive. Increased numbers of premature birth, SGA, LBW, fetal malformation, bleeding complications, IUFD as well as asphyxia and its consequences (hypoxic-ischaemic enzephalopathy, intensive medical care) were recorded. As a diagnostic means of choice, picture giving procedures with greyscale ultrasound and (colour-) dopplersonography should be utilized. Additionally, CTG, vaginal examination, measure of the fetal haemoglobin and examination oft he placenta can be utilized. The screening of velamentous cord insertion and vasa previa is recommended above all with risk patients. Following the literature, potential risk factors include especially sterility treatment, multiple pregnancy, anomalies of the placenta and maternal diseases. In regard to the overall management, the literature review concludes that heterogeneous recommendations are found. There is a disagreement with the mode of birth as well as the management during the pregnancy. Looking at the management in case of rupture of vessels immediate delivery and resuscitation measures are given priority.