This thesis deals with the situation of the increasing population of ageing opiate dependents. One of the main reasons for the growing number of elderly drug depending people are acceptance-oriented treatment offers like substitution therapy, which had a serious impact on the improved health conditions and decreased mortality of this group. First, an overview of the importance of opiate dependency within Europe and Austria will be given. Afterwards, substitution therapy and the psychosocial treatment and support of drug dependents will be described, as well as their health conditions and social situation. Finally, this thesis focusses on the question, how the specific needs of elderly drug dependents can be met and which challenges social work and other professions will have to deal with in the future.