The current work deals with the intensive medical care of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. " The estimated incidence is 50 to 100 critically ill traumatic brain injury patients per 100,000 inhabitants per year. In the gender distribution men outweigh women in a ratio of about 2.5 to 1 " ( Or , 2012 , p 490) . The first chapters of this work deal with the introduction of the topic traumatic brain injury. These include a conceptual definition, an epidemiology, a pathophysiology , and the severity of the traumatic brain injury. The extensive and challenging treatment of taumatic brain injury patients is a central focus of this thesis. Everyday nurses have to meet new challenges concerning the care of traumatic brain injury patient. For example, the measure of intracranial pressure and the resulting control are explained specifically. Based on the critical medical condition complications often occur. In order to detect early and mediacte complications such as diabetes insipitus, meningitis or epilepsy a trained and professional team is necessary. Finally, the results of this work are described in the Conclusion.