This bachelor thesis called “The Paradigm of Neglect in the Twentieth Century” deals with the category of neglect in Austria, especially in Vienna in the twentieth century. The development of youth welfare and social work up to its modern occupational profile was a central theme. Based on a historical perspective of our topic, the development of the role models up to today`s occupational profile and the „new“ institutions are examined and analysed. The development and definition of the term „neglect“is evaluated and examined through the different historical stages. The work with young adolescents due to the actual legal circumstances is expounded and the problems and challenges for the current social work practice represents the final focus of this thesis.