Due to the progress of modern medicine, even very immature preterm infants are given a chance to live. Yet, about one million children are dying of the consequences of preterm birth every year or they have to live with physical and cognitive developmental problems. The immaturity of preterms and environmental conditions at the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), where preterm infants have to spend weeks or months right after their birth, still have an impact on former preterm infants, later in their life. However, in nursing care, concepts have been established which pay special attention to the needs of premature babies. Developmental Care and Kangaroo Mother Care are two approaches that are particularly focused on the aspects of physiological development of premature infants and, for example, through intensive promotion of the parent-child attachment, have positive effects on the infants, but also on the parents very stressful situation.