As far as sex work is concerned, there have been hardly any studies conducted or statistics published which deal with working conditions for those involved in the profession. The resulting gap in understanding has resulted in a public discourse which has often adopted a moralistic and emotionally charged tone. The Austrian policy on prostitution encompasses a highly virtuous attitude, resulting in a raft of restrictive laws being passed. This thesis will deal with the consequences of the Austrian policy for sex workers in Vienna, paying particular attention to the conditions under which sex work takes place. The Vienna Sex Workers Act of 2011, as well as federal policy on the issue, will be scrutinised. A closer look reveals that the prostitution policy has had a drastic effect on working conditions since its introduction in Vienna. An example of this are the restrictive brothel licensing controls, in concert with an almost-total abolition of street sex work, which has led to a dramatic reduction in legally practised prostitution in the city. Given that the number of sex workers is increasing, many have had to resort to illegal prostitution in rented flats, making it almost impossible for social workers to access those involved in the sex trade.