This thesis introduces the genesis of the 2nd adult protection law. In the beginning, I am giving an overview of the psychiatric development based on distinctive data. After that alternatives for the substitution are listed and described. In the main part of this paper I am outlining the custodianship as the current situation and the path to the adult protection law. A detailed analysis and critical observation of the new law can be found in the end of the main part. In the last part of my thesis, the situation of two neighboring countries is specified and a conclusion is drawn from a social-service work perspective.