This thesis deals with the perioperative care of patients before and after hip arthroplasty and the significance of prophylactic measures in nursing. Ever since the establishment of “fast track” surgery, nurses are faced with new challenges that require the adoption of new, evidence-based knowledge. A literature research was performed to describe nursing measures within the early postoperative stage, the role of nursing care regarding the prevention of postoperative complications and the contents of nursing counselling considering appropriate counselling techniques, and to compare insights of different authors. Nursing measures within the early postoperative stage are the care of wounds and drainages, the imparting of movement restrictions and positioning measures, early mobilization and pain management. The prevention of postoperative complications involves measures concerning the prophylaxis of thromboembolism, infection and dislocation among others. The empowerment of self-care competence has special priority in the course of treatment. Counselling sessions regarding prophylactic actions, dealing with pain, postoperative movement, sport, fear of falling, car driving, sexual activity and nicotine consumption are suitable for the imparting of knowledge. Additionally, information leaflets and the use of technological tools can help to prepare the people concerned for their life after hip arthroplasty optimally.