The present thesis mainly aims at comparing the two types of compulsory public service for young male Austrian citizens, i.e. the military service and the community service. In doing so, it was found that there are only minor or no differences in terms of legal and social aspects like income, unemployment insurance, pension insurance, family and spouse benefits, housing benefits, and job security. However, essential differences could primarily be found in the areas of health insurance, food, and disciplinary regulations. A short, comparing digression into the public service systems of Germany and Switzerland brings the explanation of the legal frameworks of the two types of public services to an end. After that, an investigation was conducted into whether young people affected by them are having knowledge about the legal background of compulsory military or community service, and to what extent they are influencing their decision-making behaviour. By means of a specifically generated questionnaire, 398 data sets were collected. The research question was as follows: “How well do conscripts know their legal claims and social benefits in case of a compulsory military service or community service after the first day of their army physical?” This key research question could be answered by using statistical instruments like the analysis of variance, the T-test, and the correlation analysis. It was found out that the questioned persons had only little information about these topics. It was also found out that those who had informed themselves independently before the army physical did not have better knowledge about the differences of the legal claims and social benefits granted in case of a military service or a community service than those who were informed about them as late as during the army physical. Besides that, we also have to accept that, apparently, it is not possible to convey qualitative knowledge about legal claims and social benefits to conscripts during the army physical.