The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the necessity of progressive residential models. Taking into consideration the progressing urbanization and demographic changes occurring nowadays, communal forms of housing were studied as a possible solution. Firstly, an overview over the situation in Vienna and Tokyo is given, based on current statistics and projections of demographic structures and urbanization. Due to societal changes and demographic ageing, an increase in single households, new forms of cohabitation and the desire for community could be observed. Relating to the continuing urbanization, an increasing demand for housing space was noted in both cities. Subsequently, the trend of communal living was examined and defined more closely by means of literature analysis. Moreover, the historic development of community housing in both cities was investigated. In addition, data of several cooperative housing projects in Vienna and Tokyo was collected and analyzed regarding the following criteria: average living space per person, functional decompartmentalization, community and flexibility. Progressive housing projects must meet different aspects of community and flexibility, to determine whether they address the issues of current demographic changes appropriately. This was indeed the case in all investigated projects. However, an assessment of the response to the progressing urbanization is more complicated. For this purpose, the average living space per person in these living projects should be compared to that of the corresponding location in general. But for most of the housing projects, missing data and unclear allocation of living space impeded a thorough comparison. In conclusion it can be said that the studied projects are innovatively addressing the habitant’s needs. On the other hand, a clear statement as to whether the residential projects save more living space than conventional apartments was not possible within the framework of this thesis.